How does hydra regenerate heads?  Biological mechanism discovered

stubby They are invertebrates that live in fresh water Stem Cells Unless it is completely destroyed, it can repeat literally infinitely. These animals do not die a natural death. This makes living organisms hydrate the closest to our understanding Immortality.

can hydras Rejuvenates all parts of the bodyup to the head. These remarkable traits have long intrigued scientists, but the mechanisms behind them have remained undiscovered. We are now one step closer to deciphering it.

The thief is a type of animal that belongs to the species stinging birds (Cnidaria) – also belonging to jellyfish and anemones – lives in tropical and temperate freshwater environments. Their small, jelly-like bodies have tentacles at one end and conical feet at the other, which exude a sticky substance that sticks to surfaces.

At the top of the hydra’s head, between the ring of tentacles, there is a so-called person – A structure that functions as a mouth. The head of the hydra consists of 50-300 cells, which determine what shape the neighboring cells should take.

If the hydra is cut in two, Two objects will appear With lost items reconstructed. Scientists have always wondered how this is possible. A team of UCLA biologists, led by Dr. Ed Macias Munoz, looked at the genes of Hydra by comparing gene expression During head regeneration and budding (type of reproduction).

One interesting result of this work is that the hydra’s head regeneration and budding programs are quite different. Even if the result is the same, gene expression is more diverse during regeneration. Dr. Macias Munoz said that dynamic gene expression is accompanied by chromatin remodeling at sites where developmental transcription factors bind.

Scientists have found it in regeneration processes Chromatina It opens to allow cells to use their developmental genes. a lot of 2,870 genome regions detected They are used during the regeneration of the head – they contain improved genes that stimulate the processes of regeneration and growth. This means that these mechanisms have been around for 600 million years, when stinging birds separated from the group of animals with bilateral symmetry.

Track too A family of genes involved in head regeneration called Foswhich occurs in other animals, including fish, salamanders and even mice.

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