According to two scientists from the University of California, Davis, The Martian atmosphere formed in a way that contradicts modern theories. These conclusions were reached by Sandrine Peron and Sujoi Mukhopadhyay, who implemented New Analytics Chassigny meteorite from inside Mars.
The solar system formed from a nebula of gas and dust shaped like the sun and planets. The chronology of its formation can be reconstructed by examining the number of individual elements and the proportions of their isotopes.
Current theories say that rocky planets like Mars obtained volatile elements — such as hydrogen, oxygen and noble gases — from the surrounding pre-sun nebula during the early stages of formation. These elements dissolved first in the planet’s rocky mantle—which at the time was a large ocean of magma—and as the magma cooled and crystallized, it got rid of the gas and these nebulous elements ended up in the planets’ atmosphere, where they slowly escaped into space. An additional source of volatile elements in rocky planets was rocky meteorites, which are rocky meteorites that crashed into their surface.
If this theory is correct, one can expect that the elements within the planet come mainly from a protoplanetary nebula or a mixture of nebula and chondrite elements. On the other hand, the volatile elements in the atmosphere must have come primarily from chondrites, because the elements in the nebula have largely evaporated.
Peron and Mukubadhyay examined isotopes of krypton in a meteorite. Because krypton’s isotope ratios differ in the presolar nebula and in chondrites, the study found where krypton comes from inside Mars. It turns out that inside Mars there is a krypton derived from a chondrite, not from a nebula.
This result indicates that chondrites transported volatile elements into the interior of Mars much earlier than previously thought, while the pre-solar nebula was present. Therefore, scientists at the University of California at Davis believe that the volatile elements in the planet’s atmosphere did not come from the mantle discharge of gas, but were captured directly from the nebula. It no longer exists about 10 million years after the birth of the solar system. This, in turn, raises the question of how these elements survive for so long in the atmosphere. Perhaps, right after formation, temperatures on Mars were low and the elements were trapped in the ice caps at the planet’s poles.
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