Thanks to the latest data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission to map Gaia’s stars, astronomers can study the past and predict the future of the Sun, TVP Nauka reports.
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The European Space Agency released the third version of the Gaia mission database on Monday 13 June 2022. The database contains the most accurate information about the stars of the Milky Way. The third edition of the database contained information on the intrinsic properties of hundreds of millions of stars. These parameters include the temperatures, sizes, and weights of objects. The data provided by the Gaia telescope will allow the development of accurate models of the evolution of stars, he says TVP Science.
American astronomer Annie Jump Cannon developed a spectroscopic classification of stars which arranged objects according to spectral lines. Spectral streaks are dark streaks that appear in a rainbow of colors when a star’s light is split by a prism. It turns out that the pattern of the spectral lines correlates with the temperature of the stars. Another American astronomer, Antonia Morey, classified the stars separately based on the width of certain spectral lines. It was later discovered that it is related to the brightness and age of the star. Comparing these two properties allows each star in the universe to be plotted on a single diagram.
The Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram has become one of the cornerstones of astrophysics. Compiled independently in 1911 by Ignar Hertzsprung and in 1913 by Henry Norris Russell, the HR diagram shows the brightness of a star compared to its surface temperature. By doing so, it reveals how stars evolve over their long life cycles.
The latest Gaia data package provides detailed information on the brightness and spectrum of hundreds of millions of stars.
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The mass of a star remains relatively constant throughout its life. However, as the fuel burns in the form of hydrogen, the temperature and volume change dramatically. When fuel The star’s core will run out of hydrogen, heavier elements will begin to fuse, and the temperature will drop.
Data for Sun-like stars captured by the Gaia Space Telescope will provide a more accurate estimate of our star’s daily evolution. Astronomers have investigated this starsWith a surface temperature of 3000 up to 10000 degrees Celsius because it is the longest-lived star in the galaxy, and thus it can reveal the history of the Milky Way. It is also a promising candidate for finding exoplanets because it mainly resembles the Sun, with a surface temperature of about 6000 degrees Celsius.
Scientists analyzed more than 5,000 stars and selected only those that were similar in mass and chemical composition to the Sun. The objects examined were of different ages and thus were in different stages of development. Thus, the study shows the evolution of our sun from the past to the future. Astronomers have shown how our star will change its temperature and brightness with age.
Research shows that our Sun will reach its maximum temperature at about 8 billion years, then cool down and swell to become a red giant around 10-11 billion years old. After this stage, the Sun will reach the end of its life and will become a faint white dwarf.
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