On the trail of the dark side of the universe  Urania

To understand the origin and evolution of the universe, we need computational cosmological models and telescopic observations.

To understand how the universe originated and evolved into its present form, two basic elements are necessary. Cosmological models based on principles of physics allow us to predict the current shape of the universe, while observations made with telescopes are used to validate these models. The Euclid Space Telescope will, for the first time, make it possible to measure the positions of billions of galaxies in three dimensions, covering almost the entire universe visible from Earth. The first scientific images have already been published.

Euclid, the European Space Agency’s newest space telescope, has published its first color images of space. These images are the result of combining data from two tools: VIS (visual tool) I NISP (Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer), designed to capture visible and near-infrared light using wide-band detectors. Euclid’s most important mission was to carry out the most detailed three-dimensional map of the universe and thus discover some of its dark secrets.

Previous space telescopes e.g Hubble whether JWSTThey were created to precisely study very small areas of the sky. However, Euclid has the ability to present the bigger picture with high quality. Thanks to its large optics, sensitive instruments, and location outside Earth’s noisy atmosphere, this telescope provides images of large parts of the sky in a relatively short observing time. These images are also very sharp and contain faint distant light Galaxies. Members of the Euclid Consortium demonstrated the full potential of the telescope by publishing images of five selected objects. Each of these images covers an area slightly larger than the full moon (half an angle degree). By the end of the mission, Euclid will have combined about 40,000 of these image fragments to create a vast area of ​​about 14,000 square degrees in the sky. This is equivalent to about a third of the area of ​​the entire sky, excluding our galaxy, milky way.

The images just released show something very important: each object will be a treasure trove of new insights into the physics of individual stars, the Milky Way, or distant galaxies. The telescope will collect huge amounts of data and discover more things than was previously possible – said Maximilian Fabricius of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching near Munich and Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich. Knud Janke, an instrument scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, confirms: We will all have to adapt to the wealth of information that Euclid will provide.

One example of this is Perseus group of galaxiesIt is one of the largest and most massive structures in the universe. If it is not for the network Dark matterThe galaxies in this group will be evenly spread across the sky. Thanks to Euclid’s enormous field of view and extraordinary sensitivity, scientists have the ability to measure galaxies in the Perseus Cluster down to their farthest and faintest regions. Matthias Kluge, a scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and Ludwig Maximilian University, explains: Other galaxies not associated with the Perseus Cluster can also be seen in this image. The deeper we go into the universe, the older galaxies can be discovered, due to the finite speed of light and the larger number of galaxies in different stages of evolution. This wealth of information will contribute significantly to a better understanding of the origins of the universe, which is characterized by numerous collisions and mergers of galaxies.

About 95% of our universe appears to be made up of mysterious “dark” components, which also play a role in the formation of the Perseus cluster of galaxies. While dark matter determines the gravitational influence between and within galaxies and initially slowed the expansion of the universe, Dark energy Currently driving the accelerating expansion of the universe. However, the nature of dark matter and dark energy remains elusive. However, scientists know that these materials cause subtle changes in the appearance and movements of objects observed through telescopes. To discover the “dark” influence on the observable universe, Euclid will monitor the shapes, distances and movements of billions of galaxies up to 10 billion away from us. Light year Over the next six years. In this case, spectroscopic information from NISP’s infrared instrument is supplemented by optical spectra from ground-based telescopes, which will very accurately determine the distances and motions of the galaxies imaged by Euclid and translate Euclid’s 2D images into a more comprehensive 3D map. Of the visible universe that was ever created.

Agnieszka Novak

more information:

Source: mpg

Pictured: This small section of the image plane of Euclid the Great shows details of the Perseus cluster of galaxies. Image source: ESA/Euclid/Euclid Consortium/NASA, J.-C. Image Processing. Quilander, J. Anselme; CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO

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