Why are there north and south poles on a magnet?

Let’s start by answering this basic question. Magnets, like everything that surrounds us, are made of atoms. Each atom has a nucleus surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. Each of these electrons creates its own small magnetic field, and if enough of these magnetic fields are directed in the same direction, then All materials will become magnetised.

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It is known that electrons have magnetic fields, and one of the ways to generate them is to rotate the electron. By reversing the spin, or angular momentum, we will make the entire magnetic field inverted. When electrons mate, their spins usually cancel each other out. As a result, the net magnetism of the atom is zero, although this is not always the case.

There are elements, for example in the form of iron, in which the number of electrons and the way they are arranged around the nucleus are slightly different. In their case, each iron atom contains a non-paired electron, which generates a small magnetic field. If the material is not magnetized, the individual magnetic fields will be directed in random directions.

Dividing one magnetic rod in half, we get two more magnets with opposite poles

Magnetism occurs when subatomic magnetic domains align in the same direction. Their combination creates a much stronger magnetic field, and the entire material becomes a magnet. Our planet also has its own magnetic field, and the north pole of a magnet is the side that points to the north pole of the earth if the magnet rotates freely.

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In theory, this means that Earth’s magnetic north pole is actually a magnetic south pole, because the opposite poles attract. Physically, magnetic field lines, on the other hand, run outward from the north pole of a magnet to its south pole, forming a closed loop. And although the issue of magnetism has a strictly scientific basis, and has been studied for a long time by the best minds in the world, magnetism still surprises.

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