Three-layer graphene has remarkable properties.  In the future, it will be used in quantum technologies

Twisted graphene can consist of two or three layers, and thus provides useful properties. The best example of this is the achievements of scientists recently described in temper nature.

The team responsible for this issue was led by Stefan Nag Berg, who and his colleagues at the Caltech discovered that the superconductivity in the designed material exhibits some very unusual properties. As a result, it appears to be a funky superconductor.

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What is this state anyway? In the simplest terms, superconductors are materials in which electrons can flow freely through the materials without resistance, so there is no energy loss. This enables highly efficient transmission of electricity, which is of course highly desirable and offers many potential applications in computer science or electronics.

In the case of multilayer graphene, the individual sheets are stacked on top of each other so that each successive one is coiled by 1.05° compared to the previous sheet. In this way, the useful properties appear, and the number of electrons added depends on whether it is possible to obtain an insulator or a superconductor. Unfortunately, superconductivity can only be achieved at extremely low temperatures, not much above absolute zero.

Graphene can acquire new properties due to the twisting of its layers

Under these conditions, the electrons form pairs that behave differently from the individual electrons, which in turn allows the pairs of electrons to flow without scattering. Energy is needed to break up these pairs, but the amount of energy for pairs moving in different directions may vary. For this reason, the energy gap that arises as a result of changes in the entropy of the system between the superconductor and the ordinary conductor in the phase transition is called a definite shape. This is due to the probability of the pairs breaking up with a certain amount of energy.

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In the case of three-layer twisted graphene, the superconductivity can be turned on by applying a voltage to a nearby electrode. The results to date on this issue and further research progress should provide information about the theory of superconductivity in this type of working paper. Nag-Berg adds that more layers would likely make superconductivity more robust while still being highly tunable. This will be particularly useful for superconducting devices, which can be used, for example, in quantum information processing.

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