Since then, questions have been raised about the residential school system in Canada and its implications. Below are the answers to some of them.

February 1940 File photo Students and nuns pose in a classroom at Cross Lake Residential School in Manitoba.

Photo: Library and Archives Canada

How many children were forced to attend these schools?

From 150,000 countries, Medis and Inuit children were forced to attend church-run and government-funded schools between 1870 and 1997.

A change Indian law In 1894 residential school attendance was made compulsory. Children were torn from their families and cultures and forced to learn English, embrace Christianity, and conform to the customs of the country’s white majority.

The National Center for Truth and Reconciliation (CNVR) has identified the names or information of more than 4,100 children who died while attending these schools, most of them due to malnutrition or disease.

Former Senator Murray Sinclair, presided Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (CVR) said in a review of residential schools, the death toll could be much higher due to poor residential school death records.

Map of Canada showing residential schools.

This map shows residential schools accredited by the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement (IRSSA).

Photo: Truth and Reconciliation Commission

How many schools have been identified? Where were they?

The Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement (IRSSA) recognized 139 residential schools in Canada. This order excludes schools that operate without federal support, i.e. only run by religious orders or provincial governments.

These 139 schools operate in all provinces and regions of Canada except Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and Newfoundland and Labrador. (Residential schools located in Newfoundland and Labrador are not included CRRBI.)

In 1931, at the height of the residential school system, there were about 80 schools operating across the country.

Last closed, in 1997, was the Kualik Hall Residential School at Rankin Inlet in Nunavut. (It became an accredited school CRRBI This explains why previous accounts describe the last school closure in 1996.)

Stephen Harper shakes hands with Indigenous leaders.

Former Prime Minister Stephen Harper, on June 11, 2008, met with indigenous leaders and formally apologized to the residential school victims.

Photo: Canadian Press / Fred Chartrand

Who is responsible for that?

Many residential school children were subjected to physical, sexual or psychological abuse Cultural genocide Over there CVR In its 2015 report.

Presented by Prime Minister Stephen Harper in 2008 Official apology In a public forum on behalf of the Government of Canada on the damage caused to residential schools and their indigenous people.

The apology came nine months after the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement came into force. Global solution Class activity – This includes the survivors, the churches that ran the federal government and residential schools – foretold the creation of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

It is also offered for financial compensation in two forms: a Common experience fee (PEC) through an independent assessment process to assess the claims of all students who have attended boarding schools and alumni who have experienced boarding school abuse.

More than $ 3 billion has been paid to 28,000 victims of residential school abuse, according to a report released last March.

Pope speaks with huge brackets from a window.  A man holds his microphone.

Pope met Canadian cardinals after the discovery of Kamloops.

Photo: via Getty Images / via Vincenzo Pinto

What did the Vatican do or say about this?

The Catholic Church managed about 70% of residential schools in Canada, including Kamloops from 1890 to 1969, before the federal government took over until 1978.

While the Anglican Church and the United Church, in particular, have formally apologized for their role in the residential school system, the Catholic Church Until now Refused to do so.

It came very close in 2009, when Pope Benedict XVI revealed his revelation Tragedy For some behaviors Worse Members of the Church. In 2018, the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops announced Pope Francis He realized he could not respond personally Residential schools should apologize.

Archbishop Michael Miller.

Archbishop Michael Miller apologized and expressed his condolences to the tribal people.

Photo: Diocese of Vancouver

However, from Many leaders He apologized individually before and after being found in the Kamloops of the Catholic Church in Canada.

The Catholic Church has refused to release a number of residential school documents citing privacy laws that could shed light on unmarked graves.

As a part of CRRBI, Catholic groups had to pay millions of dollars: 29 million To the Native Healing Foundation, but under the agreement of Catholic groups, raising more than $ 25 million to fund healing programs.

However, a controversial court ruling in 2015 allowed Catholic groups to raise 4 million out of 25 targets.

Was there an investigation?

The CVR The report, filed in 2015, released 94 calls, including a section on missing children and graves.

Commission calls on federal government to work with churches, tribal communities and alumni Establishing and maintaining an online residential school cemetery record, as much as possible, including plot maps showing the location of dead children in residential schools.

Crown-Indigenous Affairs Minister Carolyn Bennett recently planned to spend about $ 33 million in 2019 on her budget. CVR Related to burial.

However, only a small portion of this amount has been spent so far, 27 million Still available.

Ms. Bennett said the money Distributed urgently, The National Center for Truth and Reconciliation in Winnipeg and in conjunction with tribal communities engaged in current or future research.

Several dozen tribal children are standing.  At the front of the photo, three priests are seated.

The name of father Arthur Lao on the left of the photo appears more than 300 times in sexual abuse complaints.

Photo: Radio-Canada / National Center for Truth and Reconciliation

Are other schools under investigation?

The CVR Its 2015 report concluded that the bodies of the majority of students who died in these schools were not returned to their home communities.

The commission has records of 51 children who died at the Kamloops Indian Residential School.

In light of the latest discovery, Trudeau promised the support of the federal government to protect burial sites Bring other places to light Pits not marked in other residential schools. However, he and his ministers stressed the need for tribal communities to decide for themselves how they want to proceed.

Mark Miller, Minister of Home Affairs, says Ottawa Keeps pace with communities And seeks to develop culturally appropriate ethics to honor missing children.

Bishop John Percussion O'Grady, left.  Well, a letter sent in 1948 to the parents of students at the Native Residential School.

Bishop John Percussion O’Grady filmed in 1986 with his Cory’s degree. Right, letter sent to parents of residential school students in 1948.

Photo: Prince George Newspaper Archives / PCDF

Where are the leaders of these schools now?

The discovery of child remains in the Kamloops prompted calls for the cancellation of courses awarded to those who helped set up residential school systems for cities and institutions across Canada.

The University of British Columbia has stated that Re-examination of the degree of Co-operative Society Presented to the now deceased Catholic Bishop John Pergus O’Grady, former principal of the Kamloops Residential School.

On Prince Edward Island, Canada’s first Prime Minister John A. McDonald statue Withdrawn Following the Charlottetown City Council vote.

In Toronto, Ryerson University is being asked to change its name and remove the statue of Egerton Ryerson from its campus. The University Press School has already indicated that it will rename two of its publications.

Meanwhile, the Coal Board of Education has passed a resolution to rename it Lange’s School, Named after Hector-Louis Lange, one of the fathers of the Confederacy, who is considered one of the architects of the residential school system.

With information from John Paul Tusker, Peter Simonjic and John Hernandez of the CBC

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