Currently, it is assumed that the existence of the universe began about 13.8 billion years ago as a result of the Big Bang. However, Paul Steinhardt and Neil Turok believe that this process may be cyclical, repeating every trillion years.
In practice, this means that The universe is expanding and contractingthat takes a trillion years. Then it is reborn, giving rise to matter, structures, and things that we can observe even today. Steinhardt and Turok wrote a paper on this topic entitled Periodic model of the universe.
Scientists assume that after the Big Bang, the period of cosmic inflation began. Then, in a split second, the packed material expands to an extremely small volume. According to the Standard Model, called LCDM (Lambda Cold Dark Matter), the universe is like a funnel, the bulk of which is expanding over time.
The Big Bang is the first stage of the universe’s existence
Of course, as astrophysics has taught us, not everything can be confirmed with certainty in the world of science. One of the elements of research devoted to collecting information about the origin of the universe is the microwave background radiation, that is, the remnants of radiation from the early years of the universe’s existence. In addition, by observing Cepheids and galaxies, scientists have concluded that the universe is constantly expanding. However, the pace of its expansion is questionable.
It is not even known whether this phenomenon continues. In other words, it is uncertain whether the expansion of the universe will stop or reverse, causing space to contract. A periodic model of the universe can resolve confusions associated with the Big Bang theory and the inflation model.
Steinhardt and Turok postulate that the Big Bang was not the beginning of time and that there was an earlier phase before it, consisting of an enormous number of expansion and contraction cycles of the universe. This means that after many years of expansion, we will experience a deflationary phase known as the Great Depression. As with LCDM, the periodic model also takes into account the contribution of dark energy, which is likely responsible for the expansion of the universe. In the model proposed by Steinhardt and Turok, two identical planes will connect and expand. Dark energy will then be the driving force behind both the collisions and the retreat.
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